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EXCLUSIVE TO EUROPE RENAISSANCE: Early in the morning of May 1, 1945, the last chief of staff of the ground forces of Nazi Germany, General Hans Krebs, presented the commander of the 8th Guards Army, General Vasily Ivanovich Chuikov, with Adolf Hitler’s political testament, in which he appointed members of the new German government headed by Admiral Karl Dönitz. Krebs announced Hitler’s self-martyrdom and was authorised by the new Chancellor Joseph Goebbels to negotiate a truce with the Soviet side. The Soviet side recognized only unconditional surrender.
The Third Reich outlived its founder by exactly seven days. On May 2, 1945, in Berlin, the Red Army units discovered the bodies of Hitler, his wife Eva Hitler, Joseph Goebbels, his wife Magda and their six children, as well as the corpses of two dogs.
The dentures, as well as the contents of the intestines and other internal organs, were examined from the discovered remains in order to confirm the use of poison before death. Forensic medical examination protocols were drawn up. Test tubes with pieces of glass ampoules were found in the mouths of corpses and in the mouths of dogs, test tubes with blood from the heart, part of the lungs, liver, part of the stomach with contents, part of the brain were attached to the acts.
The acts of discovery and identification of the corpses of Goebbels, his wife and six children, the act of finding the corpses of Hitler and his wife, and the act of discovering the corpses of dogs were sent to Moscow. It turned out that one shepherd dog was poisoned with cyanide compounds, the other was first poisoned with a small number of cyanide compounds, and then, in agony, was shot with four shots.
On May 27, 1945, the head of the counterintelligence department ‘Smersh’ of the 1st Belorussian Front A. A. Vadis sent the People’s Commissar of Internal Affairs L.P. Beria a note about the discovery of the corpses of Hitler and Goebbels. Copies of the note were sent to I.V. Stalin, People’s Commissar for Foreign Affairs V.M. Molotov, Deputy Chairman of the Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR G.M. Malenkov and Chief of the General Staff of the Red Army A.I. Antonov.
In addition, employees of the Soviet counterintelligence interrogated employees of the Reich chancellery from among the personal environment of Hitler and Goebbels, medical personnel of the imperial chancellery, including those who participated in the killing of Goebbels’ children.
Each witness reconstructed only a fragment of the event. The Germans were confused in the testimony, talking about what happened just a couple of days earlier. They could not reconstruct the course of events in which they themselves were participants.
The dentist Helmut Kunz attributed to himself the killing of the Goebbels children, although in fact he could not do this and several times suggested to Magda Goebbels that six children be transferred to the care of the Red Cross. It is most likely that Ludwig Stumpfegger helped to poison the Goebbels’ children.
It was alarming that the employees of the Ministry of Education, who were part of the inner circle of Goebbels’ employees, those with whom he regularly contacted, found it difficult to describe his appearance and even confused the leg on which he limped, calling the patient either left or right. Significant assistance in the identification of corpses was provided by dentists and their assistants. Features of the dentures of their former wards were obvious.
To double-check the information, the dentist Professor Blaschke, who put Hitler’s dental crowns, was delivered to the prisoner-of-war camp where he was located, plaster, a spatula and a knife, so that he could restore Hitler’s dentures from memory. Blaschke’s cellmate was surprised at the accuracy with which he restored the jaws and prostheses of his former patient. The Soviet military, who were in possession of Hitler’s jaw found at the Reich Chancellery, were astounded to see a complete coincidence of bites in the discovered corpse and in the prosthesis recreated by Blaschke.
One of the sources that confirmed the death of Hitler and Eva Braun was a fragment of Martin Bormann’s diary, the translation of which was also sent to Moscow. Bormann’s diary noted that April 30, 1945, was the day of the death of Adolf and Eva Hitler.
In Allied Occupied Germany, the official announcement took place only on October 25, 1956, when the district court of Berchtesgaden announced the suicide of Adolf Hitler. This decision was intended to weaken the activities of neo-Nazi organizations, disavowing the version of the miraculous rescue of the Fuhrer. But first of all, the question of money and valuables of the deceased was decided.
In a summary of his personal declaration of April 29, 1945, Hitler indicated that his property, which has any value, belongs to the party (NSDAP), and if its existence ceases, then to the state; if the state ceases to exist, then no further instructions from its side will be required.
In the 1950s the question was also raised about who was the heir to Hitler’s property. After the war, several people from his inner circle turned out to be the owners of all kinds of dishes and utensils. In a will dated April 29, 1945, Adolf Hitler made the housekeeper Annie Winter the owner of his personal belongings, including pencil and watercolour drawings, sketches, etc. On December 14, 1950, all this and much more was hidden in suitcases in the apartment of a Munich merchant. After that, Winter tried to sell the things to the Americans for 200 thousand US dollars, but the police confiscated the suitcases along with the contents.
Until 1956, several attempts were made to sell Hitler’s property. However, litigation and proceedings were interrupted due to the lack of a declaration of death. Everything began to turn again after the court in October 1956 recognized that Hitler had died definitively and without a doubt.
A legend of salvation
As is known, after the identification of the remains of Hitler, Goebbels and their families in 1945, they were reburied in 1946 in Magdeburg on the territory of the barracks in the Soviet zone of occupation. Subsequently, a military camp of the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany was located on this site. In 1970, the bodies were exhumed for the last time, burned, and the ashes were scattered over the Elbe.
Soviet counterintelligence interrogated dozens of witnesses who participated in the identification of Hitler’s corpse. After that, there could be no doubt that Hitler was indeed dead. Nevertheless, all work on the identification of the remains remained classified. Until 1949, additional secret measures were also carried out to search for evidence clarifying the fate of Hitler in Germany, prisoners of war from among his closest associates were interrogated. Russian historians began to speak openly about the history of the identification of the remains only in the 1990s.
The myth of Hitler’s miraculous escape was fuelled by artificially limited information. In post-war Germany, many National Socialists remained who believed that ‘the Fuhrer is alive and he will not let us down.’
Rumours of a miraculous rescue supported the myth that Hitler never lost his war. Subsequently, the authors of publications about the rescue, rather, were driven by the desire to cash in on a cheap sensation.
Dozens of options were proposed: Hitler flew away by plane; sailed away in a submarine; in 1945, only his double remained in Berlin, and the Fuhrer himself lived out his life in a Catholic monastery in Europe, Latin America, or at a secret base in Antarctica.
At the same time, ‘witnesses’ allegedly saw Hitler in the 1950s, and in the 1960s, and in the 1970s, and in the 1980s. Printed handicrafts of absurd content came out in huge circulations. The old anecdote was quite appropriate: according to information agencies, not only five twins were found in Berlin, but also two toes, as well as one Hitler extension cable. Even today, when exhaustive evidence of the death of Hitler has been declassified and published, theories about his salvation are sometimes found.
Below we publish part of the RGASPI documents (F. 82. V.M. Molotov), which reflect the difficult work of identifying the remains of Hitler, Goebbels and their families by Smersh employees in 1945.
The publication was prepared by Marina Datsishina, Candidate of Historical Sciences, Chief Specialist of RGASPI.
No. 1. Note by L.P. Beria to V.M. Molotov
People’s Commissariat of Internal Affairs of the USSR
June 16, 1945, Ex. N 2
Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR
Comrade Molotov V.M.
I am sending you copies received from a comrade Serov of acts of identification and acts of forensic examination of the alleged corpses of Hitler, Goebbels and their wives, as well as protocols of interrogations of Hitler and Goebbels’ close associates.
People’s Commissar of Internal Affairs of the USSR
RGASPI. F. 82. Op. 2. D. 1166. L. 9.
Script. Typescript, signature – autograph L.P. Beria.
No. 2. Record of the interrogation of the dentist of the Reich Chancellery H. Kunz
1945, May, 7 days, head of the 4th department of the Smersh Counterintelligence Directorate of the 1st Belorussian Front, Lieutenant Colonel Vasilyev, through a German language interpreter – investigator Senior Lieutenant Vlasov, interrogated a prisoner of war of the German army –
Kunz Helmut Gustavovich, born in 1910, a native of the city of mountains. Etlingen of the province of Baden, a dentist who recently worked in the SS Sanitary Office of Berlin as adjutant to the chief dentist.
Goebbels and his family*
Question: Until April 23 this year. did you have anything to do with the imperial office?
Answer: Until that time, I had nothing to do with the Imperial Chancellery.
Question: What is your title?
Question: Whom did you personally serve when you were at the Imperial Chancellery?
Answer: Personally, I served the wife of Goebbels, and subsequently treated the soldiers who were at the imperial office.
Question: How long have you known Goebbels and his family?
Answer: I met Goebbels on May 1 of this year. through his wife. Before that, I knew him from performances at parades. I first saw Goebbels around 1922 when he gave a speech at the people’s house in Vienna.
Question: How did it happen that you did not have access to the Imperial Chancellery on May 1 of this year. Were you introduced to Goebbels and immediately given access to his apartment?
Answer: Apparently because I knew Goebbels’ wife, whom I treated.
Question: Have you been to Goebbels’ apartment?
Answer: I was in Goebbels’ bunker in the Imperial Chancellery, where his family – his wife and children – also lived.
Question: What physical defects do you know of in Goebbels, his wife and his children?
Answer: The wife and children were perfectly normal, but Goebbels was limping on his right leg.
Poison for children
Question: Could you specify in more detail what happened to Goebbels and his family?
Answer: April 27 of this year. before dinner at 8-9 pm I met Goebbels’ wife in the corridor at the entrance to Hitler’s bunker, where she told me that she wanted to turn to me on one very important issue and immediately added – now the situation is such that it is obvious that we will have to die, wherefore, she asks me to help kill her children, to which I gave my consent.
After this conversation, Goebbels’ wife invited me to the children’s bedroom and showed me all her children. At this time, the children were about to go to bed, and I did not talk to anyone with them. At that moment, when the children went to bed, Goebbels himself came in, wished the children good night and left.
After staying in the room for 10-15 minutes, I said goodbye to Goebbels’ wife and went to my hospital, which was located in the same bunkers, about 500 meters from the bunkers of Hitler, Goebbels and other persons who were at Hitler’s headquarters.
On May 1 of this year, at about 4-5 pm, Goebbels’ wife phoned me at the hospital, saying that enough time had passed and asking me to come to the bunker right away. Then I went to her, but without any medication. When I arrived at Goebbels’ bunker, I found Goebbels himself, his wife, and State Secretary of the Propaganda Ministry, Naumann, talking about something.
After waiting at the door of the office for about 10 minutes, when Goebbels and Naumann left, Goebbels’ wife invited me to go into the office and stated that the decision had already been made (it was about killing children), since the Fuhrer had died and at about 8-9 o’clock the units would try to get out of the encirclement, and therefore we must die, we have no other choice.
During the conversation, I suggested that Goebbels’ wife send the children to the hospital and place them under the care of the Red Cross, to which she did not agree and said: it would be better if the children die. After about 20 minutes, at the time of our conversation, Goebbels returned to his office, and turned to me with the words: ‘Doctor, I will be very grateful to you if you help my wife kill the children.’
I offered to Goebbels, as well as to his wife, to send the children to the hospital under the protection of the Red Cross, to which he replied: ‘It is impossible to do this because after all, they are Goebbels’ children.’ After that, Goebbels left, and I stayed with his wife, who played solitaire (fortune-telling on cards) for about an hour.
About an hour later, Goebbels returned again, along with the deputy. Gauleiter in Berlin Schacht, and since Schacht, as I understood from his conversation, should leave for a breakthrough with parts of the German army, he said goodbye to Goebbels, Goebbels gave him dark horn-rimmed glasses with the words: ‘Take it as a keepsake, I wore these glasses always Fuhrer.’ After that, Schacht said goodbye to Goebbels’ wife, as well as to me, and left.
After Shakht left, Goebbels’ wife said: ‘Our units are leaving now, the Russians can come here at any moment and interfere with us, so we need to hurry up with resolving the issue.’
When we, i.e., Goebbels and I left the study, then in the front at that moment there were two military persons unknown to me, one in the form of the Hitler Youth, I don’t remember the form of the second, with whom Goebbels and his wife began to say goodbye, and the unknown asked: ‘And how are you, Minister, have you decided? Goebbels did not answer this, and his wife said: ‘The Gauleiter of Berlin and his family will remain in Berlin and die here.’
Having said goodbye to the indicated persons, Goebbels returned to his office, and I, together with his wife, went to their apartment (bunker), where in the front room Goebbels’s wife took a syringe filled with morphine from the closet and handed it to me, after which we went into children’s bedroom, at this time the children were already in bed but did not sleep.
Goebbels’ wife announced to the children: ‘Children, do not be afraid, now the doctor will give you an inoculation, which is now done to children and soldiers.’
With these words, she left the room, and I remained alone in the room and proceeded to inject morphine, first to the two older girls, then to the boy and the rest of the girls. Spraying was done into the hands below the elbow by 0.5 cubes in order to bring them into a half-asleep state. The injection procedure lasted about 8-10 minutes, after which I again went into the hall, where I found Goebbels’ wife, who said that we had to wait 10 minutes until the children fell asleep and at the same time, I looked at the clock, it was 20-40 minutes (May 1).
After 10 minutes, Goebbels’ wife, accompanied by me, entered the children’s bedroom, where she stayed for about 5 minutes, each of them putting a crushed ampoule of potassium cyanide into their mouths. (The potassium cyanide was in glass ampoules that contained 1.5 cubic meters.) When we returned to the hall, she said: ‘It’s all over with the children, now we need to think about ourselves,’ to which Goebbels replied: ‘We need to hurry, so how little time we have.’
Then Goebbels’ wife said: ‘We will not die here in the basement,’ and Goebbels added: ‘Of course, we will go outside, into the garden.’ His wife threw a remark to him: ‘We will not go to the garden, but to Wilhelm Square, where you have worked all your life.’ (Wilhelm’s Square is the square between the buildings of the Imperial Ministry of Propaganda and the Imperial Chancellery).
During the conversation, Goebbels thanked me for easing their fate and, saying goodbye to me, wished me success in life and a happy journey. After that, I went to my hospital.
“They were wearing white nightshirts…”
Question: Where could Goebbels’ wife get poisonous poisons (potassium cyanide)?
Answer: Goebbels’ wife personally told me that she received morphine and a syringe from Hitler’s second doctor, Stumpfegger, and I don’t know where she got the ampoules of potassium cyanide.
Question: At the time of farewell to Goebbels, what were Goebbels and his wife wearing?
Answer: At the moment of parting with Goebbels, he was dressed in a party uniform, a brown uniform, black trousers, and was shod in boots. On his left sleeve, he had a simple red bandage with a white circle, inside of which was a black swastika. Whether there was a gold party badge on the uniform, I do not say, because I do not remember.
Goebbels’ wife was dressed in a dark grey striped suit (jacket and skirt), without a headdress. On the left chest was a silver badge ‘Mother’s Cross’, which was awarded to mothers with up to seven children. Whether she had a party badge, I don’t remember.
I must add that on April 24 of this year, when Goebbels’ wife was at my appointment as a dentist, she said in a personal conversation that she also had a son from her first husband named Kvant (not exactly), who serves in the German army with the rank of lieutenant or chief lieutenant and, being on the Italian front in 1944, he was captured by the Anglo-American troops, then sent to Algeria, from there he established written communication with the Goebbels family through the Red Cross.
Question: Specify the age of the Goebbels children and what they were wearing.
Answer: There were six children in total, five girls and one boy. The eldest girl was 12-14 years old; the second girl was 10-12 years old; the boy was 8-10 years old; the third girl was 6-8 years old, the fourth was 4-6 years old and the fifth was about four years old. The older girl was dressed in a light blue sleeping suit, which consisted of a short-sleeved jacket and trousers. All the other children, as far as I remember, were dressed in white nightgowns.
Question: From whom did you learn about the death of Goebbels and his wife? Answer: We know absolutely nothing about this.
Question: Specify which of the hospital’s medical workers were at Hitler’s reception when he rewarded them, and how you got there. Answer: On the night of April 30 to May 1 this year. I was in the officer’s casino, which was located above Hitler’s bunker. At about half-past two, Professor Haase, the chief physician of the hospital, called me on the phone in the casino, who said that the Fuhrer was inviting me and all the hospital staff to his bunker. After 20 minutes, when all the workers were going to Hitler’s apartment, I joined them. This group included:
The chief physician of the hospital is Obersturmführer, Professor Dr Haase.
Art. hospital doctor – Stardantenführer, Professor Dr Schenk.
The second doctor of the hospital is Sturmbannfuehrer Dr Kunz.
Sister of surgery – Erna Flegel.
The sister of surgery is Liselotte Chervinskaya.
The surgeon’s sister is Ruth (I don’t know her last name).
We stopped in the corridor of the Fuhrer’s apartment, where Hitler himself came out 10 minutes later, to whom Haase introduced me and Dr Schenk. After that, Nurse Lindhorst spoke on behalf of the awardees with a short speech about devotion to the Fuhrer. Hitler thanked all those awarded for their service and went to his office, and we went to our places.
Among those awarded were: Professor Haase awarded the ‘Cross Kriegsferdinst Kreuz 1st class’ (for special merits) and four sisters: Erna Flegel, Liselotte Chervinskaya, Elzbeth Lindhorst and Ruth (surname unknown). All were awarded the ‘Cross Kringsferdinst Kreuz 2nd class’, the awards were presented by Hitler’s adjutant Günsche while still in the hospital before coming to see Hitler.
Question: Tell us in detail about Hitler, and what happened to him.
Answer: I first heard about Hitler’s death at 9 o’clock on May 1, when units of the Red Army had already surrounded Berlin. I came to Goebbels’ apartment, his wife was crying and told me that she was on her knees in front of Hitler and asked him not to do this, and then added, yes, but there was no other way out. Goebbels’ wife did not say anything specific about what Hitler did to himself.
Question: How is it that you were there all the time and did not know the circumstances of Hitler’s death?
Answer: At that moment I was not and I can only say what I heard. What Goebbels’ wife said, I believed. She said that Germany represents a flock without a shepherd because Hitler is dead.
Question: It is impossible that you do not know how Hitler died. were at the stake. We demand that you tell the whole truth. Answer: I don’t know the details of Hitler’s death, but I’m telling you what I knew from Goebbels’ wife. In addition, there were rumours among the attendants that Hitler had committed suicide and that Hitler’s corpse was to be burnt in the garden of the Imperial Chancellery.
Question: From whom did you hear that Hitler’s corpse should be burned? Answer: I heard this from Rattenhauer, the SS Gruppenfuehrer, who was responsible for security at Headquarters. He said: ‘Father left us alone, and now we have to drag his corpse upstairs.’
‘Death will come quickly…’
Question: Did Hitler commit suicide alone or did someone else? Answer: Hitler committed suicide along with his wife Braun, whom he married a few days before his death.
Question: What did you hear about this? Answer: I know of such a case that on the evening of April 30, the children of Goebbels ran up to Frau Braun and named Aunt Braun. She answered them – now I am not Aunt Brown, but Aunt Hitler.
Question: How do you know that Brown was supposed to commit suicide with Hitler? Answer: On the evening of April 30, Eva Braun invited me, Professor Haase, and two of the Fuhrer’s female secretaries for a cup of coffee. She told us that Hitler wrote the will and that the Fuhrer would die when he received confirmation that the will had been delivered to the person to whom it was intended. She also stated that ‘we were betrayed, both Goering and Himmler’ and that ‘it will not be so difficult to die, because the poison has already been tested on a dog, death will come quickly.’
Question: Who tested this poison on a dog? Answer: Brown said that the poison test had already taken place, but she did not say who exactly carried out the poison test.
Question: You stated that Hitler married Eva Braun a few days before his death. Find out where Brown was before her marriage and what she did. Answer: From the words of Gruppenfuehrer Rattenhauer (head of Hitler’s apartment bodyguard) and Hitler’s personal pilot – Bauer, Gruppenfuehrer, I know that Eva Braun was with Hitler before her official marriage. I don’t know any other details about her.
Question: From what sources do you know that Himmler was supposed to negotiate with the Allies, and with whom exactly? Answer: As I have already shown above, April 30 of this year. between 10-11 p.m. I was in the casino with Professor Haase and Hitler’s secretaries, Frau Junge and Kristjan, when Hitler’s wife Eva Braun came in, who invited us to one of the rooms of the casino, where we stayed for about 20 minutes.
During the conversation, Eva Hitler told us that Goering was an unreliable person, which we always knew, and that Himmler, instead of transferring troops from the west to the defence of Berlin, was negotiating with the allies (presumably with America and England) about a truce, without Hitler’s consent to this. She did not say anything more detailed on this issue.
Question: When and with whom did you leave the bunker and where did you go? Answer: I was in the hospital bunkers until 2 p.m. on May 3 this year, i.e., until the capture. Together with me in the hospital remained: Professor Haase, sisters Flegel and Chervinskaya. Professor Schenk and a sister named Ruth (I don’t know her last name) took part in the breakthrough and their fate is unknown to me. The interrogation is interrupted.
Testimony read to me with translation into German and from my words are written down correctly.
Kunz. Interrogated by: head of the 4th department of the Smersh counterintelligence department of the 1st Belorussian Front, Lieutenant Colonel Vasiliev. Translator: Senior Lieutenant Vlasov. The testimony was stenographed by ml. lieutenant adm. Services, Khrushcheva.
No. 3. Protocol of additional interrogation of H. Kunz
Copy Interrogation protocol 1945, May, 19th day, I, the investigator of the 1st department of the 4th department of the Smersh Counterintelligence Directorate of the 1st Belorussian Front, Senior Lieutenant Vlasov interrogated the prisoner of war Kunz Helmut.
The interrogation started at 12.00 and was produced in German.
Question: Specify the time when you last saw Hitler. Answer: During previous interrogations, I erroneously gave the date of my visit to Hitler’s apartment, along with the honey. by the staff of the infirmary at the Imperial Chancellery regarding the awarding of the medical workers of the infirmary, namely, I said that it was on May 1, 1945, at about 2.30 am, while it took place on April 30, 1945, at the same time.
From 2.30 April 30, 1945, to 16-17 May 1 of this year. I was in the infirmary at the Imperial Chancellery, after which I was summoned to Goebbels’s apartment to help the latter’s wife in killing their children, about which I gave detailed testimony during previous interrogations.
For the first time, I learned about Hitler’s death on May 1, 1945, at 16-17 o’clock from Goebbels’ wife, when I came to her on a call. On April 30, 1945, I heard nothing about Hitler’s death. Goebbels’ wife told me: ‘The Fuhrer is dead. I begged him on my knees not to do this. However, he still left us.’ When she begged Hitler, and what exactly not to do, she did not say.
Question: Did you alone take part in the killing of Goebbels’ children? Answer: Yes, one.
Question: However, the investigation has data that Dr Stumpfegger helped you in killing the children of Goebbels. Do you confirm this?
Answer: Yes, I admit that I gave incorrect testimony to the investigation about the circumstances of the killing of Goebbels’ children. Indeed, Dr Stumpfegger helped me with this. The circumstances of the killing of the children of Goebbels were exactly as follows:
After I gave all the children an injection of morphine, I, leaving the children’s bedroom in the next room, waited with Goebbels’s wife until the children fell asleep, she asked me to help her in giving the children poison.
I refused to do it, saying that I did not have enough mental strength for this. Then Goebbels’ wife asked me to find and call to her Dr Stumpfegger, Hitler’s first accompanying physician. After 3-4 minutes, I found Stumpfegger there, in Hitler’s bunker, sitting in the dining room and told him:
‘Doctor, Mrs Goebbels asks you to come to her.’ When I returned with Stumpfegger back to the room near the children’s bedroom, where I left Goebbels’ wife, she was not there and Stumpfegger went straight into the bedroom. I stayed in the next room to wait. After 4-5 minutes, Stumpfegger left the children’s bedroom with Goebbels’ wife and immediately, without saying a word, he left. Goebbels’ wife also didn’t say anything to me, she just cried. I went down with her to the lower floor of the bunker, went into Goebbels’s office, where I said goodbye to both of them and went to my infirmary.
Question: Why did you keep silent during previous interrogations about the participation of Dr Stumpfegger in the killing of the Goebbels children?
Answer: The events of the last days before the surrender of the German garrison in Mt. Berlin made a strong impression on me, and I simply missed this circumstance without any intention. The interrogation ended at 16.00.
The interrogation protocol read to me translated into German, and the testimony was recorded in my words correctly. Kunz. Interrogated: investigator of the 1st division [division] of the 4th division of the Smersh Counterintelligence Directorate of the 1st Belorussian Front, Art. Lieutenant Vlasov. Source
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